Unlike pale malt which accounts for the majority of grains used in the brewing of English ales, specialist grains need not be mashed. The malting house treats them so the starch has been converted to sugar.
To extract the sugar, the grains are softly simmered in hot water for 30 minutes at 60-70ºC. Next, the grains are removed. The extract is added to the wort prior to the boiling starting. Easy removal of the grains is done by their being contained in a muslin or nylon grain bag.